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Results of Research Report

Results of Research Report

During the twenty years from the 77th to 96th year of the Republic of China, the services to the families of the incarcerated of our association were analyzed mainly based on "telephone counseling service," "case management service content," and "activity programs over the years," and the results are shown below:

Year(ROC)

title

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

Subtotal

1.Economic problems

7

56

50

266

196

504

58

297

108

84

57

67

28

43

325

442

410

142

91

104

3335

2. Psychological Counselling

15

244

322

832

728

392

81

231

209

147

50

25

4

10

203

537

233

6

5

7

4281

3. Legal Advice

22

739

764

1171

849

856

469

592

490

355

211

175

95

82

31

31

112

74

69

30

7217

4. Regulations of Prisons and Reformatories

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

112

190

151

69

69

34

44

9

20

11

21

21

24

775

5. Nursery

and  Nuring

4

16

35

227

85

261

26

48

19

14

20

11

5

3

52

56

21

15

22

14

954

6. Parenting Issues

-

-

-

122

53

30

6

33

3

13

7

7

3

1

15

80

18

22

13

20

446

7. Family Problems

-

-

-

158

18

33

4

8

1

6

4

6

5

1

43

101

48

-

-

-

436

8. Marriage problems

-

-

-

94

127

29

3

12

2

2

10

7

1

2

9

22

30

10

7

25

392

9. School Problems

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

-

6

1

1

2

2

29

52

11

-

-

-

113

10. Impoverished StudentAssistance

 

17

31

156

233

247

45

132

66

121

59

82

41

63

252

343

225

170

128

252

2663

11. Employment Problems

2

22

21

86

31

50

5

24

3

14

8

13

13

11

116

481

349

33

26

15

1323

12. Medical Treatment Problems

-

-

-

62

58

50

6

16

9

20

7

5

5

1

29

54

-

3

2

11

338

13. Service Introduction

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

26

22

46

44

65

32

42

24

35

22

46

62

73

539

14. Others

5

80

137

237

36

288

85

132

64

68

177

50

8

34

692

2032

1110

383

351

190

6159

Total

55

1174

1360

3411

2414

2740

788

1672

1186

1047

724

583

276

339

1829

4286

2600

925

797

765

28971

One. Telephone Counseling Service

During the 77th to 96th year of the Republic of China, our association had a total of 28,971 effective counseling calls, of which legal advice were 25% (7217 calls), psychological counseling were 15% (4281 calls), economic questions were 12% (3335 calls), and the others were 22% (6159 calls), the other unclassified items included household register problems, asking for service manuals of our association, questions about juvenile delinquency, sexual assault, etc.

This research, which randomly selects 15 records of telephone counseling, shows that the problems the families of the incarcerated face are all-inclusive. In the process of telephone counseling, social workers have simultaneously empathized with, listened to, and cared for the counseling callers from the psychological aspect. We can sort out the telephone counseling calls and explore three main issues: economy, nursery and parenting, prisons and reformatories and laws.

A. Economic Issues

1. Economic problems do not emerge after the incarcerated go to prison: the economic problems of the families of the incarcerated do not come from the lack of the income of the incarcerated, but originally there are defects in the functions of the families, and the reduced family internal resources can not be filled.

2. Economic issues are associated secondary issues of other ones: sometimes economic issues are the ones first mentioned by counseling callers, but the problems callers do not clearly pose need to be helped focus on with the keen observation ability of social workers.

B. Nursery and Parenting Issues

1. No one is willing to provide care for the children of the incarcerated: some of the incarcerated do not have a spouse or parents to take care of their children, and it can not last long to entrust friends to take care of their children. Hence, the care and placement of these children become primary issues.

2. The crisis of the neglect of the existence and care of the children of the incarcerated: because some counseling callers are busy in working, they ask neighbors or friends to occasionally look after their children at their home while they are working or let their children alone at home, the safety of their children’s life should be concerned.

3. The children of the incarcerated have behavioral biases: the incarcerated parents, like single parents, must take the responsibility of taking care of their children alone. If their children do not adapt well, it is prone for them to reflect the family problems with deviant behaviors. The dual pressures of education and economy often make the incarcerated parents do not know how to respond.

C. Prisons and Reformatories and Laws

1. Issues of Litigation and Procedure Execution

2. Guardianship Issues: in fact, guardianship issues are relevant to care issues. Because the children of the incarcerated do not have the ability to decide who will take care of or serve as guardians for them.

3. Issues of Regulations of Prisons and Reformatories

Such issues, often coming from the families of the incarcerated, emerge because they miss, have pity for, and are concerned for the incarcerated, but the counseling callers often want to change the regulations of prisons and reformatories through the intervention of other units in order to meet the needs of their own. Social workers will clarify the importance of the regulations of prisons and reformatories and encourage the counseling callers to call prisons and reformatories ask the relevant regulations by themselves.

D. Others:

It includes understanding the service items of our association, halfway asylums of the incarcerated being discharged from prison, psychological support needs, emotional problems, etc.

 

Brief Summary

Analyzing the telephone calls, it can be found that behind the questions of the counseling callers, there are affective components implied whether positive or negative. The incarcerated going to prison affects the emotions of the counseling callers and raises some succeeding doubts of them, so that they want to find out the answers. Therefore, in addition to having the ability of providing emotional support, the observation ability of discovering cases to serve in short-term calls is another focal point in social worker training.

Two. Case Management Service

1.        Data Arrangement

The following table is the total cases our association has served over the years.

Year

Number of Cases

Year

Number of Cases

77-78

154

88

137

79

12

89

67

80

86

90

129

81

26

91

175

82

61

92

159

83

51

93

150

84

111

94

436

85

63

95

444

86

18

96

501

87

43

Subtotal

2823

The research selects 20 cases to do data analysis, which includes gender of cases, relationship with the incarcerated, service scope, sources of cases, crime types of the incarcerated, service time schedule, problems for seeking for help, and reasons of case closed, in total of 8 items:

(1) Gender: among the 20 cases, there are 17 female cases in the majority, and 3 male cases.

(2) The relationship with the incarcerated: in the relationship with the incarcerated, 4 people and the incarcerated have parent-child relationship, 3 people and the incarcerated have cohabitation relationship, 11 people and the incarcerated have husband and wife relationship, and 2 are the incarcerated themselves.

(3) Service scope: the regional extent of case services includes Taipei City and County, Keelung, Taoyuan, and Penghu County, the farthest region where there are clients asking for help.

(4) Sources of cases: 14 cases who actively seek for help are in the largest proportion, 1 case asks for help with assistance of friends and relatives, 4 cases are referred by relevant agencies, and 1 scholarship case. Besides, 3 cases were begun repeatedly; cases who have received our services continue to ask our association for help when suffering difficulties again shows their trust in the quality of our services.

5) Crime Types of the Incarcerated

Crime Types

Number of Person-Times

Injury

3

Homicide

5

Robbery

2

Extortion

1

Intimidation

1

Theft

3

Interference with Sexual Autonomy

1

Forgery of Documents

2

Forgery of Securities

1

Interference with Family

2

Firearms and Shells

4

Drugs

56

Violation of Military Laws

1

Subtotal

32

The cases randomly selected by this research in the order of number are: drugs (18.3%), homicide (15.6%), violation of firearms and shells (12.5%), injury (9.3%), drug cases have always been the most common crime type we offer services to, and even there are cases of the whole family having drug addiction.

(6)Service time schedule: the service time for cases is different according to the differences of case needs and self-capability of cases, and the statistics service time schedules are as follows:

Time Schedule

Person-Times

Less than 3 Months

3

3-6 Months

2

6-12 Months

7

1-2 Years

7

2-3 Years

4

Over 3 Years

1

Subtotal

24

          (A) Problems for asking for help: economic problems (29%) are in the largest proportion and the followed are residential placement (13%), employment problems (13%), psychological problems (13%), legal problems (10%), and nursery care (10%).

          (B)Reasons of case closed: among the reasons of case closed, most of the clients are closed in stable condition (42%), and the followed are referrals to other resources or units (23%), losing contact with the clients (15%), and the clients are not willing to change (12%). By crosstable analysis, we find that there is no correlation between the length of service time and reasons of case closed, and not longer service time makes the conditions of cases more stable. The main incentives for the clients to change come from clients’ own resource systems, self-awareness, and the extent of willingness to make efforts to change life.

2.    Analysis of Causes of Problems

It bases on inadequate family support system, dysfunction or low function of family members of the incarcerated, the functions of caregivers of the families of the incarcerated are weak, external resource barriers, and effects of other major events combined five parts to discuss.

(1) Inadequate Family Support System:

Family resources will be affected by many intertwining and complex factors, and we often find that even family members are not willing to provide family resources to help the incarcerated. If other relatives hold negative views for the incarcerated or their families, the family internal support system will reduce significantly. The following are sorted factors which affect the will of relatives to provide resources for the families of the incarcerated, including three main points: alienated relationship between relatives, subjective consciousness, and emotional interaction, described as below:

(a)Alienated relationship between relatives: usually, natural parent and siblings are more willing to provide services to the incarcerated, and unrelated or distant relatives are more resistant to assist the families of the incarcerated.

(b)Subjective consciousness: subjective consciousness can affect a person's behavior, and it is very difficult to make a person act against his consciousness. One must have a certain degree of care and empathy for the incarcerated objects or events and then will provide assistance to them spontaneously. But even the family members are impossible to continuously pay unconditionally. The client's feedback may be actively reporting back their living conditions to relatives, establishing good interactive relationships with them, being willing to change their living conditions, etc. and then can get sustained assistance.

(c)Emotional interaction: whether family members are willing to provide assistance have great correlation with the original relationship between the relatives and the family members of the incarcerated. It is easier for the client interacting well with their relatives to get assistance when they are in bad conditions, otherwise is not.

(2) Dysfunction or Low Function of the Family Members of the Incarcerated

(a)There are too many caregiver receivers (children, the elderly, and disabled persons): the total of monthly costs of living, health care costs, education costs and other items will give the caregivers great burden. The more the necessary costs are, the higher the probability of them falling into poor people is. Besides, in addition to the burden of costs, the average time caregivers spend on caregiver receivers will become limited.

(b)Family members with diseases need care: family members have diseases means that caregivers have to takes more energy to take care of the family members, and the costs of treatment of diseases also become considerable expenditure.

(3)  Low functions of family caregivers of the incarcerated

The functions of the caregivers of the families of the incarcerated directly affect the living conditions of other caregiver receivers. If the caregivers’ functions are not good and unable to provide stable life to caregiver receivers, the inside of the family will show role confusion and functional dislocation, which can be roughly divided into physiological factors and psychological factors to analyze:

(a) Physiological factors: for example, caregivers with intelligence disability or mental disorder, regardless of the extent of disability, have less ability for deep self-awareness or having feedback to the reaction of family members. If the caregiver receivers inside the family (such as children) prematurely assume the role of caregivers, it is easy for the family to generate various problems due to the functions of the replacing caregivers have not developed yet.

(b)Psychological factors: the internal barriers affect the client to see the immediate and obvious difficulties only, and if we want them to look back the family conditions in their childhood, they often can not consciously and clearly connect the relationship of their original families with the current situation. And it will produce continuous and cyclical situation model to their life in the future, affect the next generation, and form the problems of them.

(4)  External resource barriers: there are many possible factors of external resource barriers, which includes the client does not meet the conditions of the resource, the client is not suitable for or does not like the resource, and the client is unable to access external resources, etc..

 (5) Effects of other external major events combined: all things are linked together, and other unexpected difficulties, such as housing and relocation problems, major diseases, pregnancy, other incarceration events, legal issues, severe mental disorder, and placement and care problems, will affect the original problem and make it more difficult to solve.

Brief Summary

When concluding the causes of the difficulties of the families of the incarcerated, we find that in fact most of them are related to the "members" inside the families. For example, the interactive relationship between the family members, functions of family members, subjective consciousness of family members, even the past experience of the family caregivers, and so on. If other family members become obstacles, it will increase the frustration of this family and reduce the possibility of self-development of this family.

 

 

 

 

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